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Fewer and less women of childbearing age leave the labor market

The rate of female activity has almost been equated to that of men, but with worse salaries and more precarious positions, according to Funcas

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Fewer and less women of childbearing age leave the labor market

"The practice of abandoning labour market by some women, coinciding with maternity age, is a practice that has tended to disappear since 2005," says work gender inequalities in labour market, which analyses more than a decade of Evolution of active Population Survey (EPA) between 2005 and 2017 and underlines a "generational component" and a change in pattern of behavior.

One of main conclusions of work is that younger women do not leave because it has cost a lot of effort to arrive. It has increased its academic level — in analyzed period, those with higher studies go from 35 to 49% —. And, after investing in ir training, staying at home "is no longer a profitable alternative," says work, prepared by researchers immaculate Cebrián and Gloria Moreno, Department of Economics at University of Alcalá.

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The increase in level of studies is one of variables that explains that re is a growing gap in activity, as noted in this report included in last publication of Savings Banks Foundation (FUNCAS). Despite effort in better training, y continue to win in precarious positions, gender gap persists in salaries (11.5% difference, according to report) and y have longer days, adding external work with unpaid that y make at home.

Researcher Gloria Moreno defines part of what happened in last decade as a "generational change" in which young women want a more active role. But warning that if this jump is not accompanied by or changes, Spain will remain among countries with lowest maternity rate in world. Young women workers "expect to have children once ir professional career is consolidated," explains researcher. Between 2005 and 2017 crude birth rate fell by 17% and average number of children per woman (1.33) has fallen below so-called generational replacement threshold, that is, of 2.1 children needed to ensure renewal of a population.

According to report, however, percentage of mors with children under three years of age entering labour market has risen exponentially, almost 13% in period analyzed. But, despite increase, women with young children are still least employed while no significant differences are observed in case of men, wher y have children or not.

"Spain has to consider wher it wants to kill itself demographically or will put in place supportive measures," claims sociologist Ángeles Durán, researcher at Center for Scientific Research (CSIC). It calls for "lasting in time" measures beyond debate already in Congress of equal and non-transferable permits for parents when child is born. For Duran, this is a proposal with "a more symbolic and pedagogical impact than real" because it concentrates in a short time and leaves ahead anor 30 or 40 years of working life. The key, he insists, is an increase in public services to ensure coverage of public children's schools, senior care bonds, and tax discounts for those who work and have family responsibilities.

The report adds that measures should not be addressed exclusively to women, nor do y encourage care to continue to be considered female tasks. If not, companies will continue to consider hiring a woman more expensive than a man's.

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