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Luther: The 95 theses that revolutionized Europe

The reform was the necessary antecedent of the Enlightenment and the counter closed Spain to the modern world

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Luther: The 95 theses that revolutionized Europe

If Europe's bloody religious history could be measured by how Centennials of Martin Lur (Eisleben, Germany, 1483-1546) have been celebrated, this October 31, 2017 cannot be more peaceful and ecumenical. It commemorates 500 anniversary of Protestant Reformation that Franciscan monk threw on such a day as today its famous 95 ses at door of cadral of Wittenberg and until Pope Francis has joined celebrations by placing a statue in Vatican of (until H (Little Ace) older than Christian heretics. It was on occasion of a meeting of Catholic and Luran leaders in classroom Paul VI, in October of last year. Although installation was temporary, gesture proved impressive. Francisco also traveled to Sweden to participate with president of Luran World Federation, Munib Younam, at opening of ' year Lur ' in a ceremony officiated in Luran Cadral of Lund. These are some of keys to understanding this centenary of reform.

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  • The bible of bear and Spain of reform that could be

Lur. Karl Jaspers wrote that Lur is part of "decisive men of mankind, first discoverer of subjectivity." Crossed out for centuries as worst of heretics, with brutal Execraciones, among whom Lur has been rehabilitated abound Catholic ologians of stature of Yves Congar. "He is one of greatest religious geniuses in history, at same level as St. Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas," he said.

Wittenberg. On shores of Elbe, Wittenberg was in 1517 capital of Duchy of Saxony, a prosperous city thanks to trade and its mineral wealth. Today it has scarcely 50,000 inhabitants and lives mostly from tourism that attracts fame of its most famous guest. Lur was a professor at his university when he launched his reformist ses after going through a spiritual crisis that led him to conceive a new faith while he was sitting doing his needs in toilet.

reform. The great reformer told how conversion occurred, but his was not a tantrum. At beginning of 16th century, all important people inside church were clamoring for reforms. There was corruption. Church posts could be bought and sold. Many priests were adulterers, drunk and ignorant of scripture. Machiavelli wrote it in a brutal way: ' We Italians are more irreligious and corrupt than ors, because Roman Church has given us worst example '.

Schism. That night of 500 years ago germinated second Great Schism of Christendom, after separation in 1054 of Catholics and Orthodox. Lur also opened up new ways of seeing world. The reform marked history of Europe and United States.

indulgences. "The righteous will live by faith," was Lur's evangelical currency. He did not want to establish a new church but to debate on reprehensible practices in Roman papacy. "The Grace and mercy of God are free," he said against indulgences, that is, against purchase of papal bulls that Absolvían sins whenever money is paid to give more lustre and luxuries to Basilica of St. Peter. Lur says, "y preach that as soon as coin is thrown in box, soul flies out of purgatory." It's just profit and greed. "Why does Pope, whose fortune is now more abundant than that of wealthiest rich, does not build basilica with his own money, rar than with poor believers?"

Protestantism. With evangelical Christianity (Luranism) arises a new form of relationship with God, but also a revolution of social structure and political construction. Lur preaches freedom of belief and, consequently, freedom of thought. Protestants believe that salvation does not depend on works but on faith. They only have two sacraments, baptism and Eucharist.

Bible. Pere Aude. Have courage to use your own reason. With translation of Bible into German, a great literary feat, Lur took on one of challenges of Enlightenment, which has so offended Vatican: that normal people learned to read and think, besides to enjoy Bible in ir own language , without papal guardianships or censures.

counter. If reform was necessary antecedent of Enlightenment and beginning of modern world, counter closes Spain to modern world. It occurred even though Emperor Charles V was a protector of Lur, whom Rome wanted to burn alive as soon as possible. The scene is famous. Lur is presented in front of young emperor in Diet of Worms (January 28, 1521) and maintains his doctrine with famous answer "I can not orwise."

in quisition. It is discussed wher Inquisition was in Spain much more brutal than in rest of Europe, that is to say. The Spanish Catholicism does not appear in sixteenth century Europe with splendors that vindicates counter. This says Marcel Bataillon in an imposing ' Erasmus and Spain ': "It has been noted with great reason that very severity of repression inquisitorial is interpreted outside of Spain as a sign that Spaniards need violence to be Christians."

Cisneros. Cardinal Cisneros, twice regent, confessor of Isabel Catholic and Archbishop of Toledo, reformed in depth Franciscan order, to which it belonged, and was aware of need for profound changes throughout Roman Church. He died when he was traveling to Valladolid to lay down his regency in hands of Charles V. He was an admirer of Erasmus, who did not accept his invitation to work at his side in Alcalá de Henares, but he did not have news of reform proposed by Lur. He died only eight days after German monk, Franciscan like him, launched his 95 ses.

Erasmus. Lur and Erasmus agreed on ir reflections on freedom, religion and ethics. When half world wanted to burn Lur, Erasmus, great humanist of moment, refused to choose between Rome and Protestant reformer. "No solidarity with Lur, no war against him." "I will endure this church until I find a better one," he proclaimed. It was a prudent option, although this did not prevent inquisition from burning some of its followers in Spain. They once told Erasmus: "You put egg and Lur hatched it." He replied, "Yes, but I expected a chicken of anor kind."

Sack of Rome. The long Inquina between emperor Charles V and papacy on purpose of Lur and, above all, by questions of power, culminated on May 6, 1527 with terrible ' sack of Rome ' by troops in command of Duke of Bourbon. It has been said that kings of Spain were (are) more papistes than pope to be forgiven that episode of pillage and Death in heart of Vatican.

Spain. Protestantism soon arrived in Spain in early years of reign of Philip II. The Inquisition was used thoroughly, with extreme brutality, to prevent its expansion, with several cars of faith and burning of heretics in Seville and Valladolid in 1559 and 1560. Philip II came to say that he preferred to stop being king to reign over heretics.

Jesuits. The voyage of Francis to Sweden to attend opening of ' year Lur ' was a symbol because one who takes step for part of Rome is nothing less than a Jesuit, congregation that fought in first row that reform taking even a military name ( company of Jesus). There were wars and a division of Christian Europe on several sides. The conflict was religious, but also political. The victims were people. ' Cuius Regio, eius religio ', that is to say, King's religion will be religion of his subjects, it was a way of surviving.

ex communication. Rome hesitated about need to punish Lur, famous very soon throughout Europe. Finally, 95 ses were condemned by León X on June 15, 1520 by bull Exsurge Domine and Lur excommunicated following year. It is discussed wher Francisco prepares a rehabilitation. The Vatican will not be able to lift excommunication to Augustinian friar (that can only be done in life), but it does recognize that intentions of famous friar were not mistaken.

women. "Protestantism is nothing more than religion of priests who marry," he wrote with his habitual frivolity, Menéndez Pelayo. He was a flag-bearer of traditional Catholic thought in face of reform, which he reflects over and over again in history of heterodox '. The truth is that woman represented a very important role in reform already in life of Lur, among ors his wife, Cistercian nun Catalina de Bora. They had six children. Today re are many evangelical churches that hold position of bishops or important positions of leadership, while Roman Church keeps m in marginalization.

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