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The Great War placed

Lukasz Kamienski Passes Magazine in a pioneering book to the use of drugs in combat throughout history, from the Greek hoplites to the special forces of the United States

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The Great War placed

There is no sober war. That war has always been used drugs is known, what is not so much is scale. In fact, most of Warriors in history have come into combat in a position of something. From Greek hoplites (opium and wine) to current American fighter pilots ("Go pills": amphetamines), passing through Viking Warriors (hallucinogenic mushrooms), Zulus (extracts from various "magic" plants) or kamikazes Japanese (Tokkou-Jo, "assault pills": methamphetamine), fighters of all ages and classes have thrown out some psychoactive substance to enardecerse, improve performance, and overcome fear and be able to fight enemy with weapons Deadly, a trauma, killing and eventually dying, which means a real challenge to human nature.

To explain social, cultural and political history of use of se substances in battlefield has dedicated professor of Faculty of Political and International Studies of University Jaguelónica of Poland Lukasz Kamienski (Krakow, 1976) his book The Drugs in War (critique), a work that covers a large gap on subject and is full of exciting information and unpayable details, such as British victory in Alamein had to do with use of Bencedrina — of which Montgomery was an enthusiast — , and Marines in Tarawa with speed. Kamienski points out that Bismarck was a "regular addict" and that John F. Kennedy was injected Dexedrine and was placed of speed during missile crisis.

Combatants of all ages and classes, author asserts, have thrown out some psychoactive substance for enardecerse

"War is to a large extent inseparable from drugs," says Kamienski, who keeps remembering that war itself is a drug. "Throughout history we find continuous references to fungi and magical plants and to all kinds of toxic substances that help warriors to inspire m in struggle, to make m better combatants or to contribute to alleviate physical or psychological effects of Combat. Also to make m bearable boredom that often entails war. I am not saying that all Warriors of all armies have used and use pharmacological assistance, but main melody of military history does have that pharmacological tone. Homo furens is a homo narcoticus.

The scholar, who considers that " practice of placing himself is among those who fight as old as war itself", analyzes warlike "rush" under several aspects: drugs prescribed by military authorities mselves and distributed by m to soldiers ( "Evincing a double-moral hypocrite", Autorrecetadas by combatants, and those used as tools of war (from use three millennia ago by chaldeans of plumes of Indian hemp to blunt enemy — with risk of blowing wind in Against —) up to US plans during Cold War to launch a shower of LSD over Soviet troops. No less outlandish have been furr projects in US like bombing with pheromones to enemy forces to sexually discontrol soldiers or to use Viagra with members of special forces mselves to make m more aggressive.

Enlarge Photo The Polish writer and professor Lukasz Kamienski, in Madrid. VÍCTOR SAINZ EL PAÍS

Kamienski highlights use of alcohol, "" The Liquid Courage ", as" most popular drug of many have used armies "and" one of props "of troops of all time (except, of course, Islamic ones), at least until end of Second World War. It has been used, remember, as an anestic, stimulating, relaxing and empowering. It is not understood British Empire, it points out, without rum, which was given to Marines and soldiers, neir Russian army without vodka, which propitiated victories and also caused defeats. In Chechnya soldiers came to exchange armored for boxes of vodka.

The drugs in war follow use of se chronologically, until arriving at current wars, with ISIS hung of Captagón (fenetylline) and Americans using new generation psychostimulant modafinil, very effective in combating fatigue and Sleep deprivation. The last thing, says Kamienski, however, is " direct neurostimulation of brain." The future, he predicts, points to a ciborgización of soldiers instead of ir yonquización.

The book passes magazine to Greek warriors (who consumed opium dissolved in wine), nizaríes killers of Alamut associated with hashish, and Mushroom eaters and German and Scandinavian Berserker furor that relates to intake of Amanita muscaria or A. Panrina , mushrooms which also took up, holds, in order to fight rabidly Tartars.

Kamienski, who smiles politely when he is told about use of magic potion by Gauls of Asterix, explains that Napoleon had to take drastic measures against habit of consuming hashish of his troops in Egypt. He n goes on to review Opium wars and stresses epidemic of morphine addiction that provoked American secession war, where he handed out to right and sinister as a panacea.

In colonial wars, according to scholar, most of warring peoples who faced European powers were definitely placed. The Zulu warrior Elite with Dagra, South African high variety of cannabis. The First World War was strife of cocaine, which consumed German hunting aces, was administered to Australian soldiers in Gallipoli and was supplied regularly in general to British troops in form of tablets Forced March (!).

The second contest was speed and goal of Wehrmacht, marketed as Pervitin. The Nazis sought an even more powerful stimulant, "a true magic bullet", in DI-X, which tested commands of Otto Skorzeny. But in fact all armies used amphetamines. Special case, aims Kamienski was that of Finnish troops, placed up to eyebrows with heroin, morphine and opium.

In great Second World War, only traditional were Soviets, loyal to vodka and valerian.

The myth of "Junkie Army" in Vietnam

Kamienski dedicates a wide space to cold Guera, to search for substances to place enemy and "hallucinogenic Arsenal of USA", like Angel Dust, often experienced in own soldiers and in civilians without m knowing it. He also follows real paranoid obsession to achieve a "truth serum."

The Vietnam War is " first true pharmacological war," with consumption among American military personnel who reached heights never seen. The scholar points out that in 1973, year of US withdrawal from South East Asian country, 70% of soldiers took some narcotics, out marijuana, dexedrine, heroin, morphine, opium, sedatives or hallucinogens. The army came to launch a mass urine analysis program called Operation Golden Flow (!). The massive place was what gave rise to myth of "Junkie Army", although author believes that drug use, "in general terms, did not interfere excessively in combat performance." In any case, only a few were comforted in Vietnam writing home and listening to Barbra Streisand

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