Cheerful, pious, pagan, excessive, exuberant... The Holy Week of Seville seems a measured and perfect spectacle, a prodigy of atrical and mystical sensory, but in reality it is an artifact strategically organized century by century; A phenomenon that survived fires, epidemics, iconoclastias, economic crises and secular revolutions. Where to trace its origins? To medieval devotions? To symbolic readings of Reformation? To ornamental excesses of Baroque? Until recently, it was argued that Reformation was period in which it emerged. And nineteenth century, with romantic airs of so-called Corte Chica of Duke of Montpensier and Infanta Maria Luisa of Bourbon, moment in which definitive aestic is fixed.
However, a rigorous study now raises a revision of se origins, dating back to most unexpected century beginnings of Holy Week of Seville: eighteenth. The researcher Rocío Plaza Orellana raises in its modern origins of Holy Week of Seville. The power of Brorhoods (1777-1808), published by Paseo, this rereading of a celebration that on many occasions has dated its beginnings based only on tradition, something much more remote.
For Sevilla, eighteenth was not a glorious moment. After 16th and 17th centuries, with commercial monopoly with indies that make it economic capital of Spain, XVIII will be a time of darkness. Decay crystallized in 1717, when monopoly with America passes to Cadiz. However, Seville, as historians Antonio Domínguez Ortiz and Francisco Aguilar Piñal once pointed out, will become a laboratory for illustrated reforms of Carlos III. The transformations will herald change of old to new regime and affect urbanism, university, atre... and Holy Week.
These trials of modernity will arouse strong tensions between civil and ecclesiastical power. And y will be captured in episodes such as The Ascent and fall of Illustrated assistant Paul de Olavide, who tried to change old Seville — and with it his passion — but that he would suffer a inquisitorial process by "wicked and rotten member of religion," precisely because of his rejection of Popular devotions.
Charles III forced brorhoods to be "collected and finished before sun sets." And what was done in Seville? Neir more nor less than breaking laws of kingdom by putting his images on street at night
"The Olavide process had numerous vertices. They emphasize, by transcendence that y would have after for brorhoods, two accusations: to allow dances of masks and comedies and ir lack of religious piety, "explains Plaza, professor of art history at University of Sevilla.La Holy Week which is now Vive is daughter of that time, as it survives hard battle of enlightened reforms. Its dazzling Madrugá arises in its current conception at that time. How was it invented? Paradoxically, se nightly courtship of early morning of Good Friday begins in Century of lights. The Madrugá is a result of certain legal pitfalls that brethren used to avoid enlightened reforms. For example, interpretation — not without picaresque — of temporal concept of Alba, time when processions were to be released to avoid night.
The Council of Castile implanted in 1777 a series of laws to control customs of brorhoods. In reality, se measures had been initiated Olavide a decade earlier as part of ir illustrated reforms: Once nightfall, brorhoods could not be found in streets, to possible public disorders and crimes covered in shadows. Nor were faces covered by penitents and Discipliners allowed. The measures were in tune with those of Marquis de Esquilache banning coats and hats, which ended in mutiny that caused Minister of Charles III to fall.
The king forced brorhoods to be "collected and finished before sun sets." And what was done in Seville? Neir more nor less than to break laws of kingdom by putting its images in street at night protected in a curious interpretation. It was Brorhood of Silence, founded in 14th century, which in 1774, forced to change, dictated that y would accompany Jesus Nazareno and Virgen de la Concepción in a "Alba" or Sunrise, which was translated by two in morning. "This decision came to be part of complex strategy of deceits, resistances and dislikes that brorhoods offered to new ordinations coming from Madrid, as if Sevilla had anor Sunrise", details Plaza.
The Brorhood of silence dictated in 1774 that y would accompany Jesus Nazareno and Virgen de la Concepción in a "Alba" or Sunrise, which was translated by two o'clock in morning.
The same thing happened with great power, and n Macarena would do it — both continue to make ir penance station in Madrugá — and taxiing — which is currently in procession on afternoon of Good Friday — that Procesionaba on Holy Thursday afternoon and also Sorp Yielded night. So, he left half an hour after dawn, sheltered in early morning. "As would be counted many years later, y were able to make night day, only with ir presence. When great power was finally made with its dawn, Olavide still remained in hands of Holy Office, "adds researcher unveiling Sevilla that won Battle of Enlightenment.Picturesque Tonadillas and atrical airs
A legal reform of Charles III after mutiny of Esquilache brought with it trap. To avoid more disorders like one that lay down his minister, King created new political figures, among m so-called mayors of Barrio. This measure meant entry into government of cities of people of lower, but more dynamic social extraction. In Seville, many were brethren and knew how to use power granted to avoid enlightened reforms that affected processions.
After se changes, XIX would impregnate brorhoods of Theatrical airs. "The atre was a mirror of influences. They shared feared angels, frosting of tulles of ladies in rostrillos of painful, "says researcher Rocío Plaza. Holy Week was infected with Tonadillas interpreted in trades. In a chronicle of time is read: "No more hear than minuets in meditations, chant Abolerados, verses or motets afandangados. (...) Or atre is a religious act or our religion is a comedy. " The romantic century arrived and with it picturesque Sevilla.