Three and a half years after beginning of undeclared war in Ukraine, Kiev has re-regulated foundations of warfare with two laws and laid down conditions for a future settlement of conflict. Parliament agreed to laws in first readings; The follow-up votes will be expected in coming days. On or hand, attempt to impose several agreements on ceasefire and political autonomy, which was undertaken on pressure of Western governments, failed to establish Kiev with mediation of France and Germany's 2014/2015 in Minsk with Moscow and Russian rebels.
Since neir Russia nor Ukraine in conflict ever declared a declaration of war and Kiev also did not declare a state of emergency or war, Ukrainian military officials and authorities in Ukraine officially acted only within framework of an "anti-terrorist action", led by Domestic intelligence SBU. The rights of soldiers, civilians and prisoners of war were refore hardly defined. In future, general staff of Ukrainian army will lead fight to combat "armed Russian aggression in regions of Donetsk and Lugansk".
Russia is described in one of laws as a state that initiated, organized and supported "terrorist activities in Ukraine, and which has an armed aggression against Ukraine and a temporary occupation of its territory with participation of Forces and or units of Russian Federation ". It is unclear what consequences of this finding are for existing political contacts and for trade between two countries. The word "war" is avoided in laws.
The United States, France and Germany had also urged President Petro Poroshenko to establish in two laws urgent implementation of three agreements of Minsk. These agreements foresee ceasefire, demilitarization and, in turn, more political self-determination for Ukraine, but are not yet a binding part of Ukrainian law. Many parliamentarians, however, refused to mention Minsk's agreements in a law, given ongoing conflict and a strong Russian force in Ukraine, both soldiers and equipment.
The feared consequence is that rebel representatives, who were installed by Moscow, who also signed agreements, would be so legalized. Many parliamentarians also rejected government's argument that Minsk regulations-and ir non-fulfilment by Moscow-were basis for EU and US economic sanctions against Russia and should refore be mentioned in new laws. The draft law abolished any mention of Minsk agreements-only n did Parliament approve laws on Friday. The laws also stipulate that any political agreement, such as an extended self-government, would only be implemented if all Russian units were withdrawn from Ukraine.