The sanctions against North Korea do not work. The Japanese economist Katsuhisa Furukawa, who until last year was a member of UN Expert group responsible for monitoring se sanctions, comes to this assessment. These burdened North Korea, according to Furukawa; In Pyongyang, fewer cars than before, and businessmen re would have trouble finding US dollars for imports from China: "But real goal of freezing and eventually stopping North Korea's missile and nuclear program is not achieved."
North Korea's mobile launcher for Hwasong-14 missile, for example, comes from China. Recently, Furukawa discovered a so-called carbon fiber wrapper on a photo on which dictator Kim Jong-un inspects an armaments institute. With machines, regime is able to manufacture rocket shells made of carbon. "I was shocked," expert said, "I don't know where you got this. When I was investigating sanction violations for UN, re was no evidence of this. " Pyongyang also has climatic chambers that are likely to come from Japan. They are used to investigate how materials behave in space. "You have only been on sanction list for a month and a half," says Furukawa. "The UN banned North Korea from exporting women's, children's clos and fish. But se really hot things still get into country. " Also rectifiers from Switzerland, or broadcasters from Great Britain, who are sold online: "North Korea often uses cheap small appliances, for which re are also civilian applications."
Such technology imports of North Korea would have to be stopped in opinion of expert-"but list of prohibited things is absurdly detailed. On 5 September nickel alloys were added, which can withstand 10 000 hours of temperatures up to 650 degrees Celsius. That's 416 days. Should customs test metal for more than a year to decide wher delivery to North Korea is prohibited? That's ridiculous. "The more detailed sanction lists, greater loopholes
Pyongyang has many years of experience in circumventing sanctions, says Furukawa, and with se detailed lists you open loopholes to regime. "But nobody notices that anyway. If US State Department says that our sanctions halve North Korea's export proceeds, n it makes headlines. "
Furukawa also does not believe that Chinese Government supports circumvention of sanctions. On contrary, "Your attitude has changed 2013." Beijing has repeatedly closed companies, but y have not made it public. "And you don't realize that same person is based on a new company at same address." In anor case, those responsible were evading Taiwan to Beijing.
Moreover, some private companies-not only in China, but also in Russia-could easily be "deceived"; So, for instance, in a case when North Korea's forestry department ordered heavy tugs, which n converted it to launchers.
Smuggling can never be completely prevented, says Furukawa; At border of China to North Korea. "There are relatives living on both sides that are economically integrated. The mafia is also active. And North Koreans are pros in cover-up. " Would help, for example, if ship movements and money transfers were to be monitored. "But even n re would be loopholes, you can't stop North Korea."